The world is on a catastrophic pathway to 2.7-degrees of heating. This is breaking the promise made six years ago to pursue the 1.5-degree Celsius goal of the Paris Agreement, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres warned on Saturday.

He said failure to meet this goal will be measured in the massive loss of lives and livelihoods. The Secretary-General was responding to the UN Climate Change synthesis report of climate action plans as communicated in countries' Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).

The NDC Synthesis report indicates that while there is a clear trend that greenhouse gas emissions are being reduced over time, nations must urgently redouble their climate efforts if they are to prevent global temperature increases beyond the Paris Agreement's goal of well below 2 degrees Celsius -- ideally 1.5 Celsius -- by the end of the century.

United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres
United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres speaks to journalists during a press encounter at the UN headquarters in New York, on Aug. 1, 2019.IANS

"G20 nations account for 80 per cent of global emissions. Their leadership is needed more than ever. The decisions they take now will determine whether the promise made at Paris is kept or broken," Guterres said.

"Before COP 26 all nations should submit a more ambitious NDC that help to place the world on a 1.5-degree pathway. We also need developed nations to finally deliver on the $100 billion commitment promised over a decade ago in support to developing countries. The Climate Finance report published today by the OECD shows that this goal has not been reached either," he added.

Synthesis Report of UN

The Synthesis Report released by the UN Climate Change on Friday was requested by Parties to the Paris Agreement to assist them in assessing the progress of climate action ahead of the UN Climate Change Conference (COP26) this November in Glasgow in Scotland.

The report includes information from all 191 Parties to the Paris Agreement based on their latest NDCs available in the interim NDC registry as at July 30, including information from 86 updated or new NDCs submitted by 113 Parties.

The new or updated NDCs cover about 59 per cent of Parties to the Paris Agreement and account for about 49 per cent of global GHG emissions.

Antarctica's snow turns blood red
Snow in Antarctica is pointing towards a serious climate change as snow turns blood red

For the group of 113 Parties with new or updated NDCs, greenhouse gas emissions are projected to decrease by 12 per cent in 2030 compared to 2010. This is an important step towards the reductions identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which estimated that limiting global average temperature increases to 1.5 Celsius requires a reduction of CO2 emissions of 45 per cent in 2030 or a 25 per cent reduction by 2030 to limit warming to 2 Celsius.

Within the group of 113 Parties, 70 countries indicated carbon neutrality goals around the middle of the century. This goal could lead to even greater emissions reductions, of about 26 per cent by 2030 compared to 2010.

"I congratulate all Parties that have submitted updated or new NDCs," said Patricia Espinosa, Executive Secretary of UN Climate Change.

"The synthesis shows that countries are making progress towards the Paris Agreement's temperature goals. This means that the in-built mechanism set up by the Paris Agreement to allow for a gradual increase of ambition is working," she added.

China emissions
Representatives imageReuters

A sizeable number of NDCs from developing countries contain conditional commitments to reduce emissions, which can only be implemented with access to enhanced financial resources and other support.

The report suggests that the full implementation of these components could allow for global emissions to peak by 2030. Regarding adaptation actions, which are also covered in many of the available NDCs, support is particularly critical.

"This shows just how central the issue of providing support to developing countries really is. We need to peak emissions as soon as possible before 2030 and support developing countries in building up climate resilience.

$100 billion pledge

"The pledge to mobilize $100 billion annually by 2020 was key for enhancing climate action by developing countries. That commitment that was made in the UNFCCC process more than 10 years ago has not yet been fulfilled. It's time to deliver -- COP26 is the place to do so. Developing countries need this support in order to act as ambitiously as possible," Espinosa urged.

Greta Thunberg
Swedish environmental activist Greta Thunberg celebrates her 17th birthday by attending the weekly "Fridays For Future".Reuters

The report also contains some worrying findings. The available NDCs of all 191 Parties taken together imply a sizable increase in global GHG emissions in 2030 compared to 2010, of about 16 per cent.

IPCC Findings

According to the latest IPCC findings, such an increase, unless actions are taken immediately, may lead to a temperature rise of about 2.7 Celsius by the end of the century.

"The 16 per cent increase is a huge cause of concern. It is in sharp contrast with the calls by science for rapid, sustained and large-scale emission reductions to prevent the most severe climate consequences and suffering, especially of the most vulnerable, throughout the world," Espinosa said.

"The report clearly shows that the NDC framework is helping Parties to advance towards fulfilling their commitments under the Paris Agreement," she added. Espinosa clarified that Parties can submit NDCs or update already submitted NDCs at any time, including in the run-up to COP26.

In this event and in order to ensure that the COP has the latest information before it, the UN Climate Change will issue an update to cover all NDCs submitted on or before October 12. The update is planned to be published on October 25.

Alok Sharma, incoming COP26 President, said: "This report is clear: ambitious climate action can avoid the most devastating effects of climate change, but only if all nations act together. Those nations which have submitted new and ambitious climate plans are already bending the curve of emissions downwards by 2030. But without action from all countries, especially the biggest economies, these efforts risk being in vain."

(With inputs from IANS)