At least five people were killed and two others injured in a blast at Doghabad area in Police District 7 in Kabul on Tuesday, police said.
According to police spokesman Ferdaus Faramarz the doctors had worked in the Pul-e-Charkhi prison, Afghanistan's main jail where thousands, including militants, are held. An investigation was underway, the spokesman added.
No group has claimed responsibility so far. The jihadist group Islamic State has claimed responsibility for several recent attacks in the capital where dozens of people, mostly students, were killed when they attacked two education centres, including one at Kabul University that saw gunmen open fire on classrooms.
Kabul has been hit by a wave of deadly violence this year despite the Taliban and government engaging in peace talks to end the long conflict. The peace talks, which opened in September in the Qatari capital of Doha, are on hold until early January, while Afghan President Ashraf Ghani has called for the talks to be held at home.
Tuesday's development comes after the Interior Ministry on Sunday claimed that 28 civilians were killed and 47 others injured in blasts across the country from December 17-20.
According to the Ministry, a total of 37 suicide attacks and 510 blasts have killed nearly 500 civilians and injured more than 1,050 others over the past three months in Afghanistan.
A total of 2,117 civilians had been killed and 3,822 injured from January 1 to September 30 this year, according to a report of the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) released in October.
US President Donald Trump has pushed to end America's presence by May 2021 after a deal with the Taliban earlier this year.
(With additional inputs from the Desk)