A boy takes bath outside newly built toilets in a village on the outskirts of Nagapattinam, about 325km (202 miles) from the southern Indian city of Chennai Dec. 24, 2005.REUTERS/Jagadeesh NV

In a surprising fact about India, the Census 2011 survey has revealed that more than half of the Indian population does not have a lavatory while more people own mobile phone or telephone.

"47% of the households have latrine facility within premises" while "63% households have Telephone/mobile facility," said the first phase of 2011 Indian Census, "Houselisting and Housing Census."

According to the census, among the 47 percent of household having bathroom, 36 percent households have water closet and 9 percent households have pit latrine. There is 11 point decline in households having no latrine from 64 percent to 53 percent in 2011.

As regards mode of communication, there is an increase of 16 percent in television and a corresponding decline of about 15 point in use of radios/transistors.

"63% households have Telephone/mobile facility with 82% in urban and 54% in rural area. The penetration of mobile phone is 59% and landline is 10%," said the survey.

Less than 1 out of 10 households have computer/laptop with only 3 percent having internet facility. The penetration of internet is 8 percent in urban as compared to less than 1 percent in rural area.

As per the Houselisting and Housing Census 2011, released by the Ministry of Home and Affairs, "The census houses increased from 25 cr to 33cr. There is an increase of 6 cr census houses for residential and partly residential purposes. The data indicates that the housing gap has reduced".

There is an improvement in the construction material used for roof, wall and floor. Thus there is a substantial improvement in the quality of housing both in rural and urban areas.

As regards amenities available with the households, 87% of households are using tap, tube well, hand pump and covered well as the main source of drinking water while 43.5 percent use tap water.

Only 47% of households have source of water on the premises while 36% of households have to fetch water from a source located within 500 m in rural areas/100 m in urban areas and 17% still fetch drinking water from a source located more than 500 m away in rural areas or 100 m in urban area.

As far as Main source of lighting is concerned, 67% households use electricity which shows an increase of 11point over 2001. The rural-urban gap has reduced by 7 percent points from 44% in 2001 to 37%.

The first phase of Census of India 2011 was undertaken a few months prior to prior to the second phase termed as "Population Enumeration".

Other major highlights of Houselisting and Housing Census 2011 are:

- 58% of the households have bathing facility within the premises, showing an Increase of 22 points over 2001.

- Around half of the households have drainage connectivity with two-third have the open drainage and one-third has the closed drainage.

- 47% of the households have latrine facility within premises with 36% households have water closet and 9% households have pit latrine. There is 11 point decline in households having no latrine from 64% to 53% in 2011.

- 61% households have kitchen facility with 55% within premises and 6% outside premises. Two-third of the households are using firewood/crop residue, cow dung cake/coal etc. and 3% households use Kerosene. There is an increase of 11 points in use of LPG from 18% in 2001 to 29% in 2011.

- In the modes of transport 45% of the household are having bicycle, 21% two wheelers and 5% four wheelers. There is an increase of 9 point in two wheelers and 2 point in four wheelers, with bicycle showing increase of 1 point only.

- 59% of the households are availing banking facilities with 68% in urban and 54% in rural areas. The rural urban difference has reduced from 19 to 13 point.

- 18% of the households do not have any of the specified assets.