India Still a Dangerous Place for Women? Crimes Against Women on the Rise
India was dubbed as the fourth most dangerous place for women in the world according to a survey conducted by Thomson Reuters' Trustlaw Women in 2011. The country was placed after Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Congo and Pakistan, as cases like female foeticide, infanticide and human trafficking are still prevelant.
The latest report by National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) on 'Crimes Against Women' indicates that India is still unsafe for women.
According to NCRB, a total of 2,28,650 incidents of crime against women, both under Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Special & Local Laws (SLL), were reported in the country in 2011 as compared to 2,13,585 incidences in 2010, thus recording an increase of 7.1% during the year 2011.
West Bengal accounted for nearly 12.7% of total crime against women by reporting 29,133 cases in 2011, followed by Andhra Pradesh with 28,246 cases (12.4%).
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Rape cases increased by 9.2% in 2011 over 2010 by reporting 24,206 cases. This excludes 267 Incest Rape cases. Madhya Pradesh has reported highest number of Rape cases with 3,406, accounting for 14.1% of total such cases reported in the country. Mizoram has reported a crime rate 7.1 as compared to National average of 2.0.
Of the total rape victims, 10.6% (2,582) were girls under 14 years of age, 19.0% (4,646 victims) were teenaged girls (14-18 years), 54.7% (13,264 victims) were women in the age-group 18-30 years, 15.0% (3,637 victims) victims were in the age-group of 30-50 years and 0.6% (141 victims) was over 50 years of age.
Kidnapping and Abduction cases reported during the year 2011 were 35,565, which is 19.4% rise as compared to previous year (29,795 cases). Uttar Pradesh has accounted for 21.2% of the total cases at the National level with 7,525 cases and Delhi has reported the highest crime rate at 12.4 as compared to the National average of 2.9.
In the year 2011, the country recorded 8,618 dowry deaths, 99,135 torture cases, 42,968 molestation cases, 8,570 molestation cases, 8,570 sexual harassment cases, 80 cases for importation of girls, 2,435 immoral traffic cases, 453 cases under Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act and 6,619 cases under Dowry Prohibition Act.
Of the 2,28,650 cases of crime against women in the country in the year 2011, 33,789 cases were reported from 53 cities as compared to 24,335 cases (35 mega cities) in the year 2010. The rate of crime in cities at 21.0 was comparatively higher as compared to the National rate of 18.9.
Among 53 cities, Delhi (4,489 cases) has accounted for 13.3% of total such crimes followed by Bengaluru (1,890 cases) (5.6%), Hyderabad (1,860 cases) (5.5%) and Vijayawada (1,797 cases) (5.3%). The crime rate was significantly higher in Vijayawada (120.5%), Kota (57.5), Kollam (54.2), Jaipur (48.6) and Asansol (48.2) as compared to average of mega cities at 21.0.
Delhi city has accounted for 17.6% of Rape cases, 31.8% of Kidnapping and Abduction cases, 14.0% of Dowry Deaths and 10.1% of Molestation cases among 53 cities. Hyderabad has reported 12.2% (1,390 cases) of incidences of Cruelty by Husband and Relatives. Vijayawada has reported 18.0% incidence of Eve-teasing. Indore and Jabalpur having 3 cases and 2 cases respectively, have altogether contributed 83.3% of total cases of 'Importation of Girls' at all India level.
'Crimes Against Women' are broadly classified under two categories.
(1) The Crimes under the Indian Penal Code (IPC)
(i) Rape (Sec. 376 IPC)
(ii) Kidnapping & Abduction for specified purposes (Sec. 363 - 373 IPC)
(iii) Homicide for Dowry, Dowry Deaths or their attempts (Sec. 302/304-B IPC)
(iv) Torture - both mental and physical (Sec. 498-A IPC)
(v) Molestation (Sec. 354 IPC)
(vi) Sexual Harassment (Eve Teasing) (Sec. 509 IPC)
(vii) Importation of girls (upto 21 years of age) (Sec. 366-B IPC)
(2) The Crimes under the Special & Local Laws (SLL)
(i) Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956
(ii) Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
(iii) Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986
(iv) Sati Prevention Act, 1987
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